Race and history selected essays

Accepting Il Duce’s challenge was Mario Castoldi, chief designer for Aeronautica Macchi, who abandoned flying boats in favor of the twin-float configuration and adopted Tranquillo Zerbi’s new 882-hp Fiat AS-2 V-12 engine. This was modeled after the D-12 wet sleeve monoblock engine that Charles B. Kirkham had designed and Curtiss had built, but with several added refinements, including the ingenious use of magnesium alloys. Castoldi shipped four of his racing red to Norfolk, Va., for the 1926 race, but the new planes proved tricky to fly, as the high torque and heavy floats gave them a tendency to lean dangerously during takeoff. Moreover, one of the new engines caught fire during a trial run, while another broke a connecting rod and then failed a second time after Italian mechanics had spent a sleepless night trying to repair it.

As race relations in the South were transformed, so were those in Arkansas. The nonviolent strategy of the civil rights movement brought a new televised drama to race riots and protests across the country. During the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, racial tensions culminated in white mob activity outside of Central High School, forcing the evacuation of the black students recently admitted. However, no one was seriously injured, and the mob was contained. While civil rights activists in many counties met stiff resistance and even threats of physical violence, tensions did not flare to the dramatic levels they reached in other states until after the death of Martin Luther King Jr. in April 1968. Shortly after King’s assassination, Pine Bluff and Hot Springs (Garland County) saw destructive rioting. In August, a peaceful protest in Little Rock turned violent , requiring National Guardsmen to calm the crowds. The next year saw widespread mob activity by both blacks and whites in Forrest City over civil rights. National Guardsmen were once again required to calm the increasingly hostile mobs. The following years saw similar events unfold in Arkadelphia (Clark County) , Earle (Crittenden County) , El Dorado (Union County) , and Marianna (Lee County) , as well as smaller incidents throughout the state. However, by the end of 1972, racially charged mob activity in the state dropped off dramatically.

During World War II, Germanization efforts were carried out in central and eastern Europe to cull those of "German blood" there. This started with the classification of people into the Volksliste . Those selected were either sent for Germanization, or killed to prevent "German blood" being used against the Nazis. [50] In regions of Poland, Poles either mass murdered or ethnically cleansed to make room for Baltic Germans [51] induced to emigrate after the pact with the USSR. [52] Efforts were made to identify people of German descent with Nordic traits from pre-war citizens of Poland, once chosen if the individual passed the screening process test of being considered "racially valuable" they were then abducted from their parents to be Germanized and then sent to Germany to be raised as Germans, those children who failed racist tests were used as test subjects in medical experiments or used as slaves in German industry. [53] [54]

Race and history selected essays

race and history selected essays

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