Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
Scatology has a long literary association with satire,    as it is a classical mode of the grotesque , the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque.   Shit plays a fundamental role in satire because it symbolizes death , the turd being "the ultimate dead object".   The satirical comparison of individuals or institutions with human excrement , exposes their "inherent inertness, corruption and dead-likeness".    The ritual clowns of clown societies , like among the Pueblo Indians , have ceremonies with filth-eating .   In other cultures, sin-eating is an apotropaic rite in which the sin-eater (also called filth-eater),   by ingesting the food provided, takes "upon himself the sins of the departed".  Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor .