Hume spent well over five pages dissecting these three types; but Madison, while determined to be inclusive, had not the space to go into such minute analysis. Besides, he was more intent now on developing the cure than on describing the malady. He therefore consolidated Hume's two-page treatment of "personal" factions and his long discussion of parties based on "principle and affection" into a single sentence. The tenth Federalist reads" "A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex ad oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good." It is hard to conceive of a more perfect example of the concentration of idea and meaning than Madison achieved in this famous sentence.
When I was younger, I was puzzled by the energy with which my father pursued learning so many different languages (Chinese, Russian, French, and Gaelic) and the amount of time he spent on a wide assortment of cultural events, when we were only connected by heritage to some of these things. I don't remember the question I asked him, but his answer stuck with me: "You can't really understand your own culture unless you understand others." Perhaps far from being a detraction to one's identification with, and love for, one's own culture, learning to appreciate those of others could actually be an enhancement.
The Part 1 question will be an essay on a given topic. A set of notes on the topic will be provided, and will include three bullet points. Candidates will be asked to select two of the bullet points and to base their essay on those two points . They should not attempt to discuss more than two of the points, as this will lead to the essay being less developed than required. Candidates will also be asked to explain which of the two points is more important in a given respect, and to give reasons for their opinion.
Candidates will be given three short opinions related to the bullet points. They may, if they wish, use these to help develop their essay, but they should do so in their own words, as far as possible .