Conducting interviews for dissertation

This is a good topic for the later part of the interview, after the stakeholder has relaxed a bit. Sometimes the anxieties will be things you can help with, such as worries that the product won’t have the right functionality. In other cases, the worries may point out organizational weaknesses you need to be aware of. While engineers always worry that there won’t be enough time to build the product the way they’d like to (and they’re always right), listen for truly unrealistic expectations. You may hear concerns beyond the usual level of grumbling that one part of the company is not up to doing what it needs to. If you hear that the marketing team is largely inexperienced in the product development world, you may be able to help by educating as you go. If it appears the engineering team is less capable than most, you’ll either need to suggest some additional engineering resources if you’re in a position to do so, or you’ll need to be fairly conservative in your design.

Sequence of Questions

  1. Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible.
  2. Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions), first ask about some facts. With this approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters.
  3. Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions, which tends to leave respondents disengaged.
  4. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future. It's usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future.
  5. The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview.
Wording of Questions
  1. Wording should be open-ended. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions.
  2. Questions should be as neutral as possible. Avoid wording that might influence answers, ., evocative, judgmental wording.
  3. Questions should be asked one at a time.
  4. Questions should be worded clearly. This includes knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents' culture.
  5. Be careful asking "why" questions. This type of question infers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist. These questions may also cause respondents to feel defensive, ., that they have to justify their response, which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions.
Conducting Interview
  1. Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working.
  2. Ask one question at a time.
  3. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. That is, don't show strong emotional reactions to their responses. Patton suggests to act as if "you've heard it all before."
  4. Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head, "uh huh"s, etc.
  5. Be careful about the appearance when note taking. That is, if you jump to take a note, it may appear as if you're surprised or very pleased about an answer, which may influence answers to future questions.
  6. Provide transition between major topics , ., "we've been talking about (some topic) and now I'd like to move on to (another topic)."
  7. Don't lose control of the interview. This can occur when respondents stray to another topic, take so long to answer a question that times begins to run out, or even begin asking questions to the interviewer.
Immediately After Interview
  1. Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked throughout the interview.
  2. Make any notes on your written notes, ., to clarify any scratchings, ensure pages are numbered, fill out any notes that don't make senses, etc.
  3. Write down any observations made during the interview. For example, where did the interview occur and when, was the respondent particularly nervous at any time? Were there any surprises during the interview? Did the tape recorder break?

David joined the Evaluation & Research practice in late 2016 and has participated in impact assessments and program evaluations for five different Directorate Generals. Prior to joining Coffey, David led research projects and conducted programme evaluations in the international trade and development field. Most recently, his work cover project monitoring, organisational development and communications for two social enterprises in London and Manila. David holds an MSc in Urban Economic Development from University College London, and a BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics from the University of York. He is fluent in German, Spanish, English and French. As a street photographer and music enthusiast, he enjoys exploring new cities and discovering their live music venues.

Conducting interviews for dissertation

conducting interviews for dissertation

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